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handling of rat in laboratory

Date : 2021-01-22

Baumans V, Schlingmann F, Vonck M, Van Lith HA (2002) Individually ventilated cages: beneficial for mice and man? Handling and restraint of rats (using a lab coat) - Duration: 1:09. A varied diet and the ability to forage - scattering food (e.g. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2014.12.012. NC3Rs invited article. Refuges (e.g. Burn CC (2008) What is it like to be a rat? Laboratory housing conditions have signiÞcant physiological and psychological effects on rodents, raising both scientiÞc and humane concerns. The wild ancestors of the domestic hamster were largely solitary except for mating. Assure that a “First Report of Injury” form is completed and submitted on the Employee Self Service website. Utilizing transported animals before their physiological status normalizes can have considerable and unintended effects on research results. The laboratory rat is derived from the wild brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) and is a highly social animal. Closeup of female scientist wearing blue gloves holding rat with male colleague while working in a laboratory for White rat in the arms. Tickling mitigates the aversiveness of procedures, thus improving animal well-being. Rats and other laboratory rodents. In this article, we briefly explore some of the physiological changes that have been documented in research ani… Limb muscles should tense and relax as the rat adjusts itself to the movements of the hand. Guinea pigs tend to freeze at unexpected sounds and are extremely sensitive to being moved. However, it is recognised that currently available cages (with maximum heights of around 22cm - 24cm) are Abstract: The laboratory rat is an important animal model which has been used extensively in the fields of biological, pharmaceutical, behavioral and biomedical sciences. Lønholdt Kommunikation 4,163 views. In the background is a man who is holding a rodent with gloves in his hands, eastern, calendar, new, year, card, chinese, christmas White rat in a knitted hat. Handling and Restraint Rats are typically docile animals, particularly if they are routinely handled using appropriate techniques. They should be provided with refuges within their cage or pen, such as tubes or shelters. [31] [32] Researchers have also noted that many studies involving mice, rats and other rodents are poorly designed, leading to questionable findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Nesting material is essential for parturient females. 1. They will quickly is a social animal and is largely nocturnal, although in the laboratory it is also active during daylight. A rat being deprived of … The stress resulting from handling and performing routine medical procedures such as injections can negatively impact the health and welfare of animals (Engelking, 2006, Gärtner et al., 1980, Hurst and West, 2010).Handling stress can also impact the quality of experimental data from animals, for instance in studies of learning and cognition, because stress is known to … When working with young rats, placing a hand over the rat's back will cause it … Subcutaneous injection can be made into the scruff of the neck. Introduction. In a 2012 article titled "Playful handling by caretakers reduces fear of humans in the laboratory rat" , the authors tested four scenarios regarding rat handling, including (1) minimal handling; (2) daily exposure to a passive hand for 2 min; (3) daily tickling for 2 min; and (4) daily hand restraint for 2 min (similar to pinning by a dominant rat). " Laboratory Mouse And Laboratory Rat Procedural Techniques Laboratory Mouse Procedural Techniques Manual And Dvd " Uploaded By Karl May, the texts laboratory rat and laboratory mouse procedural techniques manual and dvd are short easily read watched manuals that review the very basic handling for the animal care technician Mice have poor eyesight, particularly albino strains, and rely heavily on their sense of smell. Enough space for exercise, normal social behaviour (e.g. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. This process necessitates handling the animal on a regular basis when no procedures are performed. Frequently, these organisms cause no overt signs of disease. 1cm depth of dust-free woodchip for mice) for hygiene, comfort and to permit foraging and digging behaviour. Rat affective response measures included rates of 50- and 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalization (USV) (validated as indicators of positive and negative affect, respectively), as well as audible vocalization rates (indicating pain and discomfort), duration of the restraint procedure, and ease-of-handling scores. The results suggest that discomfort occurred during injection whereas repeated IP injections did not induce anxiety prior to the procedure compared to restraint alone. Transportation unavoidably causes stress in animals. Many factors have the potential to influence the rodent’s biologic response in a laboratory test. A wide range of social organisations has been observed depending on population density, and intense territoriality may be seen in reproductively active males. Tickling before a procedure most effectively promotes positive affect in rats. Cleaning protocols, which balance hygiene with the need to retain some odour cues (e.g. A wiki ethogram for the laboratory mouse, IAT Congress 2017 workshop summary: Playtime for Rats NC3Rs/AstraZeneca, Gibbs Building, 215 Euston Road, London, NW1 2BE | Tel: 020 7611 2233 | Fax: 020 7611 2260 | enquiries@nc3rs.org.uk, Refinement of Housing and Handling Conditions and Environmental Enrichment for Animals Kept in Laboratories, Laboratory Animal Refinement and Enrichment Forum (LAREF), IAT Congress 2017 workshop summary: Playtime for Rats. Environmental enrichment should include nesting material, a refuge area (e.g. Laboratory-reared rats and mice are specified pathogen-free and are typically accompanied by a health certificate when purchased from a University-approved source. Rats display increases in heart rate and blood pressure,7,16,17and blood corticosterone1,3,8and prolactin3,8levels in response to such stimuli. Daylight vision is poor, but dim-light vision is effective in some pigmented strains. Nesting material (e.g. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. The laboratory rat is derived from the wild brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) and is a highly social animal. Analysis of Behavior in Laboratory Rodents Ian Q. Whishaw, Forrest Haun and Bryan Kolb Introduction To see the world in a grain of sand And a heaven in a wildflower Hold infinity in the palm of your hand And eternity in an hour John Donne (1) The nervous system is designed to produce behavior, and so behavioral analysis is the soft paper or soft wood) for comfort, to help regulate temperature and light levels, and to hide and retreat from cage mates or threatening stimuli. sunflower seeds) in substrate will encourage activity and natural behaviour such as food seeking and storing. Rat sensory perception and its implications for experimental design and rat welfare. There are several laboratory procedures which are implemented on this model repetitively. Low light levels and racks with shaded tops and /or refuges and nesting material, where they can hide from too much light, will help reduce the risk of retinal degeneration, especially for albino animals. Enough height for rearing on the hind legs for scanning, exploration and play - around 12cm for mice, 18cm for gerbils and hamsters, and 30cm for rats. The 50-kHz USV data indicate that tickling rapidly induced positive affect in rats even when applied immediately after injections, and when applied just before the restraint procedure, had a carry-over effect that elevated positive affect during the procedure. They require a thick layer of litter for digging and nesting and/or a burrow substitute, such as a plastic pipe which may need to be up to 20cm long. It is important that animals are habituated to this method of handling from an early age. Their sense of smell and hearing are highly developed, and rats are particularly sensitive to ultrasound. Hamsters often make a latrine area within their enclosure, and mark their environment with secretions from the flank gland. Their sense of smell and hearing are highly developed, and rats are particularly sensitive to ultrasound. Hurst J (2005). The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory and Other Research Animals. Further information about the housing and husbandry of mice is available here. There are considerable differences between strains in the expression and intensity of behaviour, and preference for enrichment items. Care must be taken to direct the needle into the scruff and not into the handlers finger or thumb. Further information about the housing and husbandry of guinea pigs is available here. Thirty-eight students were examined during their first year of training as laboratory technicians (median age was 21 years). As a result, the risk of transmission of zoonotic agents from working with laboratory-reared rodents is very low. SUMMARY Laboratory mice, rats, and rabbits may harbor a variety of viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal agents. Gerbils are great diggers and build extensive tunnel systems in the wild. Studies indicate that rats and Mouse Handling Part 1 - Duration: 1:32. Enclosures designed to cause minimum disturbance to the animals. After a 2010 study published in Nature showed that handling lab rats by the tail causes more anxiety than guiding the animals through a tunnel or … Housing in stable, compatible groups - it is important to take into account sex, age, reproductive condition, familiarity, prior group housing experience when grouping the animals. Further information about the housing and husbandry of rats is available here. The gerbil or Mongolian jird (Meriones sp.) We hypothesized that administering playful tickles before and/or after routine intra-peritoneal (IP) injections would reduce the aversiveness of such medical procedures. Handling of experimental animal Mr. Subhash Lal Karn Dept. Rats. the Laboratory Rat.1 He was known to say, “Rats are just little people without socks and shoes.” ... handling of the subject to initiate terminal procedures, doing so with skill still makes a difference in the quality of your experimental outcome. In sum, when mildly aversive treatments must be administered repeatedly, the current findings indicate that brief tickling is more beneficial when applied pre- than post-procedure, suggesting a way to minimize potential welfare- and behaviour-disruptive effects of routine medical procedures. Rats avoid open spaces, and use urine to mark their territory. Careful, considerate and skilful handling will lead to calmer rats whilst resulting in fewer, or no, injuries to the handler. Minimisation of extraneous noise and ultrasound. AWI provides funding to laboratory personnel to conduct research focused on improving the housing and handling of animals in research, and has been at the forefront of efforts to provide nonhuman primates with social housing which addresses their behavioral needs to the greatest extent possible. Baumans V, Augustsson H, Perretta G (2010) Animal needs and environmental refinement. The same principles for good housing, regarding quantity and quality of space, environmental enrichment and other considerations, apply to containment systems such as individually ventilated cages (IVCs), although the design of the containment system may mean that these principles have to be addressed differently. www.mousebehavior.org Stanford University. Introduction •Healthy and well being of lab. scratches. Bites from rats are uncommon and will typically only occur if the animal is stressed or in pain. Comparing INJ with CON conditions, injections reduced 50-kHz USV during (CON: 98.99 ± 3.54 calls/min, INJ: 59.2 ± 2.42, P < 0.001), but not before or after, the procedure, and increased audible calling during (CON: 0.44 ± 0.182, INJ: 0.67 ± 0.250, P = 0.0006) the procedure. Baumans V, Van Loo PLP (2013) How to improve housing conditions of laboratory animals: the possibilities of environmental refinement. Signs that the animals are reacting to the draught include a change in the location of the nest and the building of barriers using bedding. Makowska JI, Weary DM. Validating refinements to laboratory housing: asking the animals. Wild guinea pigs are social, cursorial rodents which do not burrow but live under cover and sometimes use burrows made by other animals. The animal can be gently held in the palm of the hand and quickly raised and lowered. Compatible groups of animals will sleep and huddle together. The behavior of the laboratory rat: A handbook with tests. Handling of laboratory animal 1. Rats naturally carry bacteria in their mouth and … Laboratory rats are frequently subject to dissection or microdialysis to study internal effects on organs and the brain, such as for cancer or pharmacological research. Rats can be picked up by the base of the tail, as described for mice. 2. The laboratory mouse is derived from the wild house mouse (Mus musculus), a largely nocturnal burrowing and climbing animal which builds nests for regulation of the microenvironment, shelter and reproduction. from the cage wall or the cage top), the ventilation rate and the presence of nesting material are important considerations when using IVCs to house mice. Solid floors with an adequate depth of an appropriate substrate (e.g. 2.3.2 As a guide, for rats weighing 250 - 300gm, a cage height of 22cm over part of the cage should be provided. During handling, a number of features of general motor status can be examined. ILAR Journal 46: 162-170. C57BL/6 and BALB/c are the main mouse strains. Whenever enrichments are provided, these should be in sufficient number and at a sufficient distance so that aggressive competition is not triggered. Gentle and frequent handling from early in life – see. The ability of positive affective states to counteract negative states engendered by routine medical procedures remains poorly studied. They scent marking their environment within urine. Rats have relatively poor vision, but excellent senses of hearing and smell. They were re-examined after working with various laboratory animals (primarily rats, mice, and rabbits) for an average of 18 months. Procedures such as injections are stressful to laboratory rats. Sherwin C (2007), Refinement of rodent research through environmental enrichment and systematic randomization. Mice do not readily cross open spaces, preferring to remain close to walls or other structures. Mice also have very acute hearing and are sensitive to ultrasound. Albino rats avoid areas with light levels over 25 lux. Group housing is possible but special care should be taken in forming socially harmonious groups. These procedures require proper … To initially restrain a rat, the handler should gently grasp it around the shoulders. Many laboratory animals, including mice and rats, are chronically stressed which can also negatively affect research outcomes and the ability to accurately extrapolate findings to humans. Nest boxes should be provided if insufficient nesting material is provided for the animals to build a complete, covered nest. Laboratory rats not sacrificed may be euthanized or, in some cases, become pets. However, human bite wounds and skin scratches may become infected and must be treated through immediate c… grooming, play) and the provision of environmental enrichment to help reduce the risk of social stress and aggression and allow the animals to fulfill some of their species-specific behaviours. Adult males may be aggressive to each other but generally aggression is rare. Rabbits have not been the subject of such study. Bites received from rats and mice. Handling and restraint General considerations. The draught induced by high intra cage-ventilation rates in some IVCs can induce chronic stress and heat loss. Young animals are very exploratory and often engage in social play. Here we provide general information on the housing and husbandry requirements of commonly used laboratory rodents, including mice, rats, guinea pigs, gerbils and hamsters. Baumans V (2005) Environmental enrichment for laboratory rodents and rabbits: requirements of rodents, rabbits and research. Overall, CON rats produced more 22-kHz USV than INJ rats after the procedure (CON: 0.53 ± 0.158, INJ: 0.37 ± 0.134, P ≤ 0.03), although a similar number of rats contributed calls in each condition (P > 0.05). Hamsters are burrow digging, nest building rodents. Animals should be approached in a calm and confident manner, avoiding exaggerated or sudden... Handling and restraint of mice. Rats avoid open spaces, and use urine to mark their territory. In the laboratory they often develop stereotypic digging behaviour unless provided with adequate facilities for digging. Hay will satisfy the need for roughage, and wood sticks the need for chewing and gnawing. Mice are by far the most commonly used vertebrates in research. Methods such as using tunnels or cupped hands when lifting laboratory mice and rats, instead of lifting by the tail or body, should therefore be recommended. The authors found that rats responded well to both … It is also suggested that handling should be added as a method criteria in checklists and guidelines such as Appropriate lighting levels and regimes. Published studies of rats, mice and other rodents were reviewed to document behavioural and psychological problems attributable to predominant laboratory housing conditions. Providing nesting material in a form that requires shredding will give the animals something to do. Rats will not usually make an un- Sprague-Dawley and Wistar are the main rat strains. Adult rats are gently grasped around the thorax, lifted, and quickly placed into another cage. hay, straw, etc.) Activity is greater during hours of darkness. (2016) The importance of burrowing, climbing and standing upright for laboratory rats. and wood sticks can be used for chewing and gnawing. NC3Rs invited article. Handling for injection Intraperitoneal injections can be made into the posterior quadrant of the abdomen. A summary and overview of the mice and rats used in biomedical research, based on a survey of formal publications. More detailed guidance can be found in the resources and references provided. Most rodents will attempt to bite when handled. At that time, nine students (24%) had developed allergies to laboratory animals. 1:09. Material to gnaw (e.g. In laboratory rats, positive affect typically associated with rough-and-tumble play can be induced through human “hand play” – the experience of being “tickled” by a human in a manner mimicking the social interactions normally occurring during physical–social play. PVC, aspen wood or cardboard) for added cage complexity, tactile comfort, escape routes, and exploration. NC3Rs invited article. Würbel W, Garner JP (2007), Making sense of scents: reducing aggression and uncontrolled variation in laboratory mice. Laboratory procedures including handling, movement to a new cage, injection, and blood collection can be stressful for laboratory animals. Lab Animal Resources (LAR) repeats health screening on rodents housed in the University’s animal facilities. In: Baumans V, Van Loo PLP, Pham TM (2010) Standardisation of environmental enrichment for laboratory mice and rats: utilisation, practicality and variation in experimental results. In: Enrichment Strategies for Laboratory Animals. of Microbiology U.C.M.S. However, extreme care must be exercised, as an adult rat's body weight is approximately 20 fold greater than an adult mouse, whereas Tickling did not affect the responses of rats to injection, specifically, but increased 50-kHz USV compared to TN during the period(s) when applied (Before – TN: 8.3 ± 1.18, TB: 150.7 ± 3.16, TA: 30.9 ± 2.19, TBA: 154.4 ± 3.04; After – TN: 12.4 ± 1.39, TB: 72.5 ± 2.59, TA: 150.5 ± 3.59, TBA: 182.6 ± 2.67, P < 0.0001), and during the restraint procedure (TN: 33.6 ± 3.45, TB: 101.1 ± 4.27, TA: 76.98 ± 4.90, TBA: 105.1 ± 3.59, P < 0.0001). Are typically docile animals, particularly albino strains, and rely heavily on sense... And/Or after routine intra-peritoneal ( IP ) injections would reduce the aversiveness of such procedures, and. And hearing are highly developed, and rats are typically docile animals, particularly albino strains and. 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