The early studies on the Beakers which were based on the analysis of their skeletal remains, were craniometric. However, the Bell Beaker culture does appear to coalesce into a coherent archaeological culture in its later phase. The prominent central role of Portugal in the region and the quality of the pottery all across Europe are forwarded as arguments for a new interpretation that denies an ideological dimension. In eastern Denmark and Scania one-person graves occur primarily in flat grave cemeteries. DNA samples from beaker folk in Iberia and Central Europe were found to be genetically distinct. A theory of cultural contact de-emphasizing population movement was presented by Colin Burgess and Stephen Shennan in the mid-1970s.. ... and Maximus selects Coel Hen as his replacement to command most of the militarised zone of Northern Britain. Domestic sites with Beakers only appear 200–300 years after the first appearance of Bell Beakers in Europe, at the early part of the Danish Late Neolithic Period (LN I) starting at 2350 BC. They evidently landed at various times and places on the south and east coasts, whence they spread over most of the country, penetrating, and probably dominating, the Neolithic … Ireland has the greatest concentration of gold lunulae and stone wrist-guards in Europe.  It was used to turn copper into bronze from around 2200 BC and widely traded throughout Britain and into Ireland. The distinctive, decorated pots are almost ubiquitous across the continent, and could have been used as drinking vessels or ceremonious urns. The Bell Beaker culture was partly preceded by and contemporaneous with the Corded Ware culture, and in north-central Europe preceded by the Funnelbeaker culture. In Denmark, this mode of building houses is clearly rooted in a Middle Neolithic tradition. the British combination of "round barrows with crouched, unburnt burials" make it difficult to establishes the exact nature of the Beaker People's colonization of Ireland. The introductory phase of the manufacture and use of flint daggers, around 2350 BC, must all in all be characterised as a period of social change. The technique and patterning are classic forms in the context of pure European and Peninsular corded ware. "Pratiques funéraires campaniformes en Europe – Faut-il remettre en cause la dichotomie Nord-Sud ?  Instead, quite different customs predominated in the Irish record that were apparently influenced by the traditions of the earlier inhabitants.  They were subsequently widely adopted in other parts of Europe, possibly showing a change in the technology of warfare..  The only known single bell-shaped glass in eastern Sicily was found in Syracuse..  Some especially well equipped child-burials seem to indicate sense of predestined social position, indicating a socially complex society. "Bell Beaker pottery spread across western and central Europe beginning around 2750 BCE before disappearing between 2200-1800 BCE.  Beer and mead content have been identified from certain examples. The Bronze Age trend has been debated by archaeologists for over a century. The same lack of typical Beaker association applies to the about thirty found stone battle axes. Faint traces of Bell Beaker influence can be recognised already in the pottery of the Upper Grave phase of the Single Grave period, and even of the late Ground Grave phase, such as occasional use of AOO-like or zoned decoration and other typical ornamentation, while Bell Beaker associated objects such as wristguards and small copper trinkets, also found their way into this northern territories of the Corded Ware Culture. , In yet another 2015 study published in Nature, the remains of eight individuals ascribed to the Beaker culture were analyzed. However, such evidence from skeletal remains was brushed aside as a new movement developed in archaeology from the 1960s, which stressed cultural continuity. Some argue that it was simply a fashion trend shared by several distinct cultural groups. Price et al. Another site of particular interest is Ferriby on the Humber Estuary, where western Europe's oldest plank built boat was recovered. Very early dates for Bell Beakers were found in Castelo Velho de Freixo de Numão in Guarda, northern Portugal. The second building phase was dominated by a highly coherent group of pottery within the regional Chalcolithic styles, representing Maritime Bell Beakers of the local (northern Portuguese), penteada decoration style in various patterns, using lines of points, incision or impression.  Incidental finds suggest links to non-British Beaker territories, like a fragment of a bronze blade in County Londonderry that has been likened to the "palmella" points of Iberia, even though the relative scarcity of beakers, and Beaker-compatible material of any kind, in the south-west are regarded as an obstacle to any colonisation directly from Iberia, or even from France. This apparent evidence of migration was in line with archaeological discoveries linking Beaker culture to new farming techniques, mortuary practices, copper-working skills, and other cultural innovations.  Craftsmanship was transmitted by inheritance in certain families living in the vicinity of abundant resources of high-quality flint. The Bell Beaker culture (or, in short, Beaker culture) is an archaeological culture named after the inverted-bell beaker drinking vessel used at the very beginning of the European Bronze Age. All-over ornamented (AOO) and All-over-corded (AOC), and particularly Maritime style beakers are featured, although from a fairly late context and possibly rather of Epi-maritime style, equivalent to the situation in the north of the Netherlands, where Maritime ornamentation continued after it ceased in the central region of Veluwe and were succeeded c. 2300 BC by beakers of the Veluwe and Epi-Maritime style.. It shows that around 2500BC – when the main sections of Stonehenge were under construction – a race of people known to archaeologists as the Beaker folk arrived in Britain. ; for the first time gold items appeared on the island (collier of the Tomb of Bingia 'e Monti, Gonnostramatza). AOO and AOC Beakers appear to have evolved continually from a pre-Beaker period in the lower Rhine and North Sea regions, at least for Northern and Central Europe. Modelling of radiocarbon dates suggests Beaker burial practices began in Britain in Wessex in 2475-2360 cal bc (95% probability) and then spread … The abundance of different cultural elements that persisted towards the end of the Bronze Age, show a clear continuity of different regional and intrusive traditions.
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